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LED Flasher Using NPN Transistor BC547


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  1. When power is applied, the capacitor (C1) begins to charge through the resistor (R1) towards the positive voltage rail.
  2. The charging process biases the NPN transistor’s base, allowing current to flow from the collector to the emitter.
  3. As the capacitor charges, the voltage at the base of the NPN transistor increases. When it reaches a certain level, the transistor turns on.
  4. When the transistor turns on, the capacitor begins to discharge through the resistor (R2), creating a timed delay.
  5. The LED lights up during the discharge phase, providing a flashing effect.
  6. Once the capacitor discharges sufficiently, the transistor turns off, and the process repeats.

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