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Automatic intensity control room light Using NPN Transistor BC547


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Circuit Description:

  1. NPN Transistor (BC547):
    • The NPN transistor is used as a switch. Its base is connected to a voltage divider circuit consisting of an LDR and resistors.
  2. Light-Dependent Resistor (LDR):
    • The LDR’s resistance changes with varying light levels. It is used to sense the ambient light.
  3. Resistor (R1):
    • R1 is connected in series with the LDR to form a voltage divider. It helps adjust the sensitivity of the circuit.
  4. Resistor (R2):
    • R2 is connected between the positive voltage rail and the base of the NPN transistor. It is used for biasing the transistor.
  5. Light Source (LED or Lamp):
    • The light source is connected to the collector of the NPN transistor. When the transistor is biased, it controls the intensity of the light source.

How It Works:

  1. In bright conditions, the LDR has low resistance, causing a higher voltage at the junction point in the voltage divider.
  2. The higher voltage biases the base of the NPN transistor through R2.
  3. The biased NPN transistor allows current to flow through the light source, providing maximum brightness.
  4. In low light conditions, the LDR has high resistance, resulting in a lower voltage at the junction point.
  5. The lower voltage biases the NPN transistor less, reducing the current flow to the light source and decreasing brightness.
  6. The circuit adjusts the intensity of the light source based on ambient light levels, providing automatic intensity control for room lighting.
  7. Optionally, a potentiometer can be added in series with R1 for sensitivity adjustment.

Product Description


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